Under stressful conditions, fish must choose between putting energy into increasing or maintaining growth, continuing to survive by fighting disease and pathogens or putting energy into reproductive effort. The most common sacrifices involve reproductive output including the fecundity of the animal and quality of the eggs and sperm.
Under stressful conditions, female broodstock will choose between allocating energy for growth and survival or energy for reproduction. The most common negative trade-off involves reproductive performance including diminished egg quality and viability.
Stress in male broodstock causes major reductions in the sperm motility (duration of activity) and velocity (swimming speed) resulting in a reduced ability to fertilise the eggs.
Stress in brood animals results in reduced survival and viability in developing and developed progeny. Parental stress results in skeletal deformities, abnormal skin pigmentation, organ failure and scale defects. Progeny with deformities generally show increased mortality rates, reduced growth and increased susceptibility to disease.
Research has demonstrated that sedating brood animals with AQUI‑S® resulted in better quality eggs and did not compromise sperm motility or velocity.
There are several critical steps where AQUI-S® must be used for stress management. These include:
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